making marmalade & jam
I have written this out for a few friends who had problems making bread or jams
MAKING JAM OR MARMALADE
Fruit -oranges or soft fruit .
Water and granulated sugar
Steps in making jam or marmalade.
1. Wash the fruit thoroughly
a. Cooking the fruit, you do not cook fruit with sugar – that is added later. The fruit is cooked with water.
b. The first stage is to cook the fruit in order to soften it and release the pectin and acid. This is best done slowly, the fruit and water should just simmer.
c. The quantity of water and the cooking times vary for each type of fruit but the skins must be made really soft. Tough skins in jam are unpalatable and hard to digest.
d. Fruit such as plums, greengages & blackcurrants need at least ¾ of an hour. When making marmalade a minimum of 2 hours simmering is required to really soften the skins.
e. Fruit such as raspberries and strawberries need very little water and cooking before adding the sugar but they have less pectin so adding lemon juice, lime juice or pectin may be required.
f. Adding the sugar: correct amount of sugar ratio to fruit must be retained and is stipulated in the recipe. The sugar must be dissolved before the jam is boiled( a rolling boil is best) otherwise the jam can crystallise or burn. Too little sugar and the jam won’t set. Too much and the result will be thick and sticky. A wide top jam pan is best used for this as it allows water to evaporate. Do not put a lid on the pan. ‘jam sugar’ available in supermarkets contains pectin and gives a hard set although it dissolves quickly.
g. The sugar content of the finished jam should not be less than 60%.Therefore a recipe that needs 3lb of sugar should yield 5lb of jam. The correct amount of sugar prevents the growth of yeasts in the fruit which cause mould. These are unable to live in a solution which contains 60% or more of sugar.
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